cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).
Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl
Values was indicated because imply±SEM. Urine is actually amassed to possess 24 hour during the 6, 12, and you will 18 wk to choose solute account while the described throughout the To the point Strategies.
K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).
K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.
Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
Serum levels of calcium supplements and you will PTH failed to disagree ranging from K-cit–given and you may KCl-fed rats, while you are serum phosphate levels was in fact ;given rats ( Contour step three ).
K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
K-cit don’t change the level of rocks designed otherwise the amount off calcification on kidneys ( Figure 4 ). The mice shaped rocks regarding similar proportions and you will thickness and had equivalent levels of calcification for the kidney and you may meeting program.
Kidney brick development and you may calcification wasn’t different during the mice fed KCl otherwise K-cit. At the conclusion of the fresh 18-day studies, brand new the total amount out of renal rocks and calcification is actually influenced by about three observers because the described in the To the point Measures. The total amount out-of kidney calcification was also determined because described on the To the stage Steps. (A) Affiliate radiographs off kidneys away from mice choosing KCl or K-cit. Calcification scores into pictures found are given since a research. (B) Quantitation of stone formation and you will calcification in all rats choosing KCl or K-cit. Thinking is actually mean±SEM.
Noticeable stones have been dissected out of member kidneys away from one another organizations and assessed to possess crystal morphology. Brand new diffraction designs for all assessed samples have been congruent on diffraction trend from biologic apatite, a cap brick ( Figure 5 , top). Having usage hispanische Dating-Seiten of signal electron microscopy (TEM), all of the kidney stone deposits had a baton- or needle-eg profile, just as the morphology out of biologic apatite deposits ( Contour 5 , bottom) and you can rather than this new octahedral amazingly morphology out of CaOx.